Abnormal Psychology: Understanding Mental Disorders
Abnormal psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of mental and behavioral disorders. It seeks to understand the causes, symptoms, and treatment of various psychological conditions that deviate from the norm. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating field of abnormal psychology and explore its importance in our understanding of mental health.
Defining Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal psychology examines psychological conditions that cause significant distress, impair daily functioning, and deviate from social, cultural, and societal norms. It is essential to note that what is considered abnormal may vary across different cultures and contexts. What is considered an acceptable behavior in one culture might be seen as abnormal in another.
When speaking of abnormal, we must recognize there is no perfect measurement of a normal state of being. Normalcy in psychology centers on functioning and averages. If we were to browse through the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the standard classification resources for mental disorders in the United States, we would find that we all exhibit a large number of psychological symptoms for a significant amount of the listed disorders. Oddly, having abnormal characteristics is paradoxically normal.
The problem arises when our abnormal characteristics begin to disrupt our lives. This occurs with either an unhealthy grouping of abnormal symptoms or extremes expression in only a few notable symptoms. In the extremes, we refer to the occurrence as a mental disorder. Mental disorders can manifest in various forms, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, and many others. These conditions can affect individuals’ thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and overall well-being.
Abnormal Psychology is a branch of psychology devoted to the study, assessment, treatment, and prevention of maladaptive behavior, emotion, and thought.
Chronic or Acute Abnormalities
Mental disorders may be occasional or passing or long-lasting (chronic). Whether the symptoms are acute or chronic, each disrupt the live of those inflicted. In acute cases, where symptoms appear, change, or worsen rapidly, the victim is often taken by surprise with limited resources for managing the passing conditions. In several studies researchers discovered that suicide was more common among acute symptoms of depression than with those suffering from a chronic condition (.Darquennes, et al., 2023).
Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal is not a scientific classification. Researchers in the field of psychology still debate the exact meaning of the term. Most definitions of abnormality in psychology include four characteristics: deviance, distress, dysfunction, and danger. Ronald J. Comer’s refers to them as “the four Ds” of abnormality. He explains that “patterns of psychological abnormality are typically deviant (different, extreme, unusual, perhaps even bizarre), distressing (unpleasant and upsetting to the person), dysfunctional (interfering with the person’s ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way), and possibly dangerous” (Comer, 2016).
Deviance refers to a deviance from normal culturally accepted behaviors. “Abnormal behavior, thoughts, and emotions are those that differ markedly from a society’s ideas about proper functioning” (Comer, 2016).
Deviance from societal norms alone does not qualify as a mental disorder. Most physicians and psychiatrists believe that deviant behaviors, thoughts, or emotions must cause some distress before being diagnosed as a disorder. However, distress is not always present. Some abnormalities are conveniently denied, relieving the suffer of conscious acceptance and stress from their mental condition.
Dysfunction refers to interference with daily activities. The disorder “so upsets, distracts, or confuses people that they cannot care for themselves properly, participate in ordinary social interactions, or work productively” (Comer, 2016). For example, we may be an introvert and avoid many social functions. This is simply a personality characteristic. However, when our social anxiety prevents us from seeking employment, attending class, or missing doctor appointments, then it has crossed over from a personality trait to a disorder.
An ultimate trait of abnormality is when the behavior, thoughts, or emotions become dangerous to the individual or others. When an individual’s behavior is consistently careless, hostile, or confused the disordered condition creates greater risk for the individual and those around them. However, danger and violence is more an exception than the rule. Research suggests that over a life time, most people will experience some form of mental disorder, rarely will this include violence or extremely high risk of physical danger.
So while “the four Ds” are helpful, a mental illness does not need all four to be diagnosed as a disorder. Mental disorders must be examined on a case by case bases, considering individual differences and surrounding contexts.
Common Psychological Abnormalities
The list of possible abnormalities is extensive. The growing pages in each new addition of the DSM suggests that event the handbook of definitions for diagnosis and treatment is not an exhaustive list of all possible mental disorders. Over time, the American Psychological Associations adds and removes different listings in their publishing. However, there are a number of common subgroups of mental abnormalities:
- Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and phobias
- Depression, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders
- Eating disorders
- Personality disorders
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
- Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia
The Causes of Abnormal Psychology
The causes of abnormal psychology are multifaceted and can involve a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Some common factors leading to the development of mental disorders include:
- Biological Factors: Genetic predisposition, imbalances in brain chemistry, and abnormalities in the brain structure can contribute to the onset of mental disorders.
- Psychological Factors: Traumatic experiences, unresolved childhood conflicts, low self-esteem, and maladaptive thought patterns can contribute to the development of psychological disorders. Daniel Siegel wrote that “early trauma on the developing mind” may interfere with neural structures, stress response, and epigenetic development to interact and maintain healthy regulation of states of mind (Siegel, 2020).
- Environmental Factors: Adverse childhood experiences, chronic stress, substance abuse, socio-economic factors, and dysfunctional family dynamics can increase the risk of developing mental disorders.
It is important to note that while these factors can contribute to the development of abnormal psychology, they do not necessarily guarantee the onset of a mental disorder. Each individual’s experience is unique, and the interplay of various factors differs from person to person.
Understanding Symptoms and Diagnosis
The symptoms of mental disorders can vary widely, depending on the specific condition. Some common symptoms include persistent sadness, anxiety, mood swings, social withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions, and irrational fears. It is crucial to seek professional help if these symptoms persist and interfere with daily life.
The process of diagnosing mental disorders involves a comprehensive assessment conducted by mental health professionals. They utilize established diagnostic manuals, such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), to categorize and identify specific psychological conditions. This diagnostic process helps guide treatment decisions and promotes a better understanding of individual experiences.
Treatment Options in Abnormal Psychology
Treating abnormal psychology often involves a combination of therapies tailored to the individual’s needs. The most common treatment approaches include:
- Psychotherapy: This form of therapy involves working with a mental health professional to explore and address the underlying causes of psychological distress. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy are some examples of psychotherapeutic approaches.
- Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to manage symptoms associated with certain mental disorders. Antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers are commonly used to alleviate symptoms.
- Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting healthy lifestyle habits, such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, stress management techniques, and sufficient sleep, can greatly contribute to overall mental well-being.
The Importance of Abnormal Psychology
The study of abnormal psychology has immense significance in our understanding and treatment of mental disorders. By exploring abnormal behaviors, emotions, and thought processes, researchers and mental health professionals can develop effective interventions, reduce stigma surrounding mental illness, and promote overall psychological well-being.
A comprehensive understanding of abnormal psychology allows us to empathize with individuals experiencing mental disorders, foster a supportive environment, and provide appropriate resources for those in need. It also plays a critical role in shaping public policies and healthcare systems to ensure equitable access to mental health services.
A Few Words by Psychology Fanatic
Abnormal psychology is a complex and ever-evolving field that strives to shed light on the intricate nature of mental disorders. By studying abnormal behavior, emotions, and thoughts, researchers and mental health professionals can develop effective strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.
It is essential to foster empathy, understanding, and support for individuals living with mental disorders. Through awareness, education, and continued research, we can continue to make progress in the field of abnormal psychology and enhance the lives of those affected by mental illness.
Remember, seeking help from qualified mental health professionals is crucial if you or someone you know is experiencing mental health challenges.
Comer, Ronald J. (2016). Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology. Worth Publishers; Eighth edition.
Darquennes, G., Wacquier, B., Loas, G., & Hein, M. (2023). Suicidal Ideations in Major Depressed Subjects: Role of the Temporal Dynamics of Anhedonia. Brain Sciences, 13(7). DOI: 10.3390/brainsci13071065
Siegel, Daniel J. (2020). The Developing Mind: How Relationships and the Brain Interact to Shape Who We Are. The Guilford Press; 3rd edition.