Learning by Osmosis: Enhancing Knowledge through Subconscious Absorption
Learning is a lifelong process, and traditional methods like reading, studying, and attending lectures are well-known ways to acquire knowledge. However, an unconventional approach known as “learning by osmosis” has garnered attention in recent years. This concept revolves around the idea that we can absorb information subconsciously, similar to how osmosis allows the movement of molecules through a semipermeable membrane.
Learning by osmosis, like many other psychological topics, has been adulterated by money motivated marketing, trying to make a dollar off the unscrupulous consumer. Many students fancied the idea of listening to tapes of a text book while they were sleeping, believing they could unconsciously absorb class material without wasting precious social hours during the wakeful hours of the day. Other learners ridiculously tried sleeping on a text book to absorb the content.
Of course, these impractical methods to induce learning by osmosis of specific material for a specific event (a class examination) fail. School learning for examinations is a conscious process, directed by executive functions, involving the working memory, and helpful storage of facts.
Learning by osmosis is a concept of learning that involves unconscious absorption of information.
What is Learning?
Learning is a process of gathering knowledge and developing expertise. Typically, learning offers a survival advantage. One group of researchers defined learning processes as “interconnections between perception, memory, language, imagery, emotion, and motivation that allows students to mentally build connections between verbal and pictorial information patterns or between new and prior memories and integrate them with relevant knowledge structures in long-term memory” (Kuldas, et al., 2013).
Some of these processes occur unconsciously. Since some of learning is an unconscious process of integration, a small number of researchers suggested the concept of learning by osmosis.
Understanding Learning by Osmosis
Osmosis, in its scientific sense, refers to the movement of solvents from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration through a semipermeable membrane. Applying this concept to learning, the idea is that knowledge can be assimilated effortlessly by simply being exposed to it.
The belief is that by surrounding ourselves with information, whether it’s through audio, visual, or immersive experiences, we can subconsciously absorb the content. This method aims to leverage the brain’s remarkable ability to process information even when we are not consciously engaged in learning activities.
Learning by osmosis is a concept we largely associate with sham science. At least, when we refer to osmosis as unconsciously absorbing material from a book for an exam the following day. However, there is significant empirical support for unconscious learning. In psychology, several similar topics of research are related to these concepts.
In a detailed and informative book on implicit learning, Dianne C. Berry wrote, “As well as implicit learning, three other major areas of interest can be identified. These are perception without awareness, implicit memory, and automatic processing. One way of conceptualizing the relations between the four areas is in terms of whether or not actual stimuli, or the links between them, are consciously perceived, and whether these stimuli, or links, are consciously remembered or not” (Berry, 1993).
Guy Claxton explains that osmosis “operates in complicated situations which cannot be clearly analyzed or defined, and where the goal is to achieve a measure of practical mastery rather than to pursue explanation” (Claxton, 1999, Kindle location: 784).
Unconsciously Absorbing Information
Depending on our definition of learning by osmosis, it may exist. We certainly unconsciously absorb information from our environment. We do this during wakeful hours as well as during sleep.
Sleep Learning Research
Leader in the military were obviously intrigued by the possibility of teaching military personal during sleep. Perhaps, a form of brainwashing rather than subtle teaching by osmosis. Anyways, the US Airforce funded research on the possibility and effectiveness of sleep learning.
William H. Emmons and Charles W. Simon conducted research using an EEG machine to record occipital alpha rhythms, determining sleep states of test subjects. During deep sleep (REM), researchers repeatedly presented material through audio tapes. Later, researchers tested the subjects on the material. Emmons and Simon concluded that “the results of this experiment gave no evidence that auditory material could be recalled after being presented a number of times during sleep.” They explained, “learning during actual sleep did not seem possible nor learning during the deep drowsy state too practical” (Emmons & Simon, 1956).
Others have replicated Emmons and Simon’s research with the same results. However, more recent methods of monitoring brain activity records neuronal changes when sounds, lights, and smells are present during sleep. We can infer from this that stimuli is being processes at some level. Several studies over the last thirty years has confirmed that many cognitive processes occur during sleep.
Robert Stickgold provides lists some of these processes. During sleep we consolidate and enhance memories, selectively retrain emotional elements from complex scenes, integrate new memories into existing memory networks, extract the gist from a complex set of stimuli and even foster insight. Of course, one obvious missing process is learning new material.
Perception Without Awareness
Just as our brain reacts to stimuli during sleep, it also responds to stimuli in our environment that we fail to consciously register. Our working memory, largely a function of attention, is a limited resource. However, our eyes, ears, nose, and tactile senses continue to scan the environment and record information. Berry refers to this as perception without awareness or implicit memory.
Claxton explains the survival element in these implicit memories. He wrote that “‘knowing’ is a state in which useful patterns in the world have been registered, and can be used to guide future action.” He later adds “coming to know the world this way, to register its patterns and to develop and coordinate skillful responses, is what a sophisticated nervous system …does” (Claxton, 1999).
Osmosis learning may be akin to semantic access without conscious identification (SAWCI). Berry explains that SAWCI “is demonstrated whenever a measure of conscious perception indicates null sensitivity to a stimulus but a second measure of semantic processing indicates that the stimulus was nevertheless perceived” (Berry, 1993). Basically, this occurs in our “ability to distil out of everyday experience useful maps and models of the world around us…” (Claxton, 1999).
Effectiveness and Limitations
Learning by osmosis, as a sole means of acquiring specific knowledge is a fools game. While some studies claim that unconscious learning occurs in certain contexts, most research point to it as a means of consolidating and integrating information with memories we already have. Learning chapter six of your biology book through osmosis will not happen. However, after reading the material, and practicing the labs, some supporting stimuli may escape conscious awareness but still register and later integrate with the major material we consciously processed.
It is important to note that learning by osmosis should not replace active engagement and deliberate practice. we should view it as a complementary tool rather than a standalone method of learning. Subconscious absorption can provide a foundation for understanding concepts, but active participation and critical thinking are still crucial for deep comprehension.
Practical Tips for Incorporating Learning by Osmosis
If you are interested in exploring more on learning by osmosis, here are some practical tips you can use to integrate information into your learning journey:
- Audio-Based Learning: Utilize audio resources such as podcasts, audiobooks, and educational recordings. By listening to these materials while engaged in other activities, such as commuting or doing household chores, you can expose yourself to valuable information.
- Visual Immersion: Surround yourself with visual stimuli relevant to the subject you want to learn. For instance, you can create a study space with posters, diagrams, or artwork related to the topic. This visual immersion can help reinforce key concepts in your mind.
- Immersive Experiences: Take advantage of virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality (AR) technologies to create immersive learning experiences. Various platforms offer educational content that can provide a rich and engaging learning environment.
- Passive Exposure: Make a habit of leaving educational materials, such as books or articles, open in strategic locations around your living or working space. The mere presence of these resources can increase the likelihood of subconscious assimilation.
- Reflective Moments: After exposing yourself to information through osmosis, take some time to reflect on what you have encountered. Engaging in a thoughtful review or discussion with others can help consolidate the absorbed knowledge.
While learning by osmosis may not be a magical shortcut to instant expertise, it can be a supplemental method to enhance your overall learning experience. By combining this approach with active engagement, critical thinking, and deliberate practice, you can create a well-rounded learning routine. Remember, the key lies in finding the right balance between subconscious absorption and conscious application of knowledge.
Berry, Dianne C. (1993/2019). Implicit Learning: Theoretical and Empirical Issues (Essays in Cognitive Psychology). Psychology Press; 1st edition.
Claxton, Guy (1999). Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind: How Intelligence Increases When You Think Less. Ecco. Kindle Edition
Emmons,, William H.; Simon, Charles W. (1956). The Non-Recall of Material Presented during Sleep. The American Journal of Psychology. Vol. 69, No. 1 (Mar., 1956), pp. 76-81. Published By: University of Illinois Press. DOI: 10.2307/1418117
Kuldas, S., Ismail, H., Hashim, S., & Bakar, Z. (2013). Unconscious learning processes: mental integration of verbal and pictorial instructional materials. SpringerPlus, 2(1), 1-14. DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-105.